Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may affect all aspects of a child’s life. It can affect the child, their parents and siblings and cause problems in family life and marriage. ADHD’s adverse effects on children and families are more pronounced at various stages, from primary school to adolescence. ADHD can persist well into adulthood and cause disruptions in both personal and professional life. ADHD is also associated with higher healthcare costs, both for the patient and their family.
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Please use the following link to access the Copyright Clearance C enter Rights Link service if you would like to reuse this article in part or whole. You can get an instant price for the content and permission to use it in different ways. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, debilitating disorder that may impact many aspects of an individual’s life, including academic difficulties, social skills problems, two and strained parent-child relationships.3. It was once believed that ADHD would eventually go away, but recent studies have shown that up to 60% of those affected continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. It is not enough to only consider ADHD symptoms in school hours. A thorough examination of ADHD should also consider the functioning of the family.The impact of ADHD on children and their families varies as they age (fig. 1|). The executive dysfunction seen in ADHD7 can have a very different outcome in later life depending on the environment. It depends on the resources available to families and schools, as well age, cognitive abilities, and insight. It is important to create an environment that is sensitive to the individual’s needs and aware of the effects of ADHD. The goal of optimal medical and behavioural treatment is to support individuals with ADHD, allowing them to achieve their full potential and minimise adverse effects on both themselves and society.This paper will follow the natural course of this disorder from preschool, through school, to adulthood, as well as its impact on the family, community, and the society. The paper also examines commodities, healthcare costs and the impact on families.
THE PRESCHOOL CHILD
Normal preschoolers are characterized by impulsiveness, a lack of concentration and high levels of activity. A high level of supervision becomes the norm. Children with ADHD can still be noticeable. This age group is characterized by a lack of intensity in play and excessive restlessness. It is important to offer targeted parenting support and advice if ADHD is suspected. When a child doesn’t respond to parental requests or behavioral advice, it can cause parents a lot of stress.
PRIMARY SCHOOL YEARS
Primary school children with ADHD are often seen as being different, as their classmates gain the skills and maturity to succeed in school. A sensitive teacher might be able adapt the classroom so that a child with ADHD can succeed. However, this child is more likely to experience academic failure, rejection from peers, and low confidence (fig. 2|). Comorbid issues, such as learning difficulties, can also begin to affect the child. This complicates diagnosis and treatment. A psychologist can help identify learning strengths and weaknesses and provide advice on how to support the child in class.Emotional and Family Functioning in Children with ADHD Compared with Controls 13 *Higher Scores indicate better functioning. CHQ, Child Health Questionnaire.13At this age, parents may also notice that their child has difficulty at home, in the park or when visiting family members. Families may refuse to take care of the child, and other children may not invite him or her to parties or play. Children with ADHD often have poor sleep patterns. Although they may not appear to require much sleep, their daytime behavior can be worse if sleep is affected. Parents have very little time for themselves because they are always watching their children. Family relationships can be severely strained, and in some cases even break down. This leads to additional financial and social difficulties.It is difficult to assess the quality of a child’s life when they have ADHD. Parents, teachers or healthcare professionals usually conduct behavioral assessments, but it is difficult to know how the child feels. Self-evaluations show that children with ADHD perceive their most problematic behaviors as more common and less under their control than children without ADHD.Johnston & Mash examined the evidence on the effects of having a ADHD child on family functioning.Pelham et. al. reported that the deviant child behaviors that represent major chronic interpersonal stressors for parents of ADHD children are associated with increased parental alcohol consumption. According to a study, deviant behaviors of children that are major chronic interpersonal stressors for parents of ADHD kids were associated with an increased level of alcohol consumption by the parents.Sibling relationships have received little attention in families with ADHD kids. Siblings of ADHD children are more likely to develop emotional and conduct disorders.20 A recent study that examined sibling experiences of ADHD found that the disruption caused by ADHD symptoms and behaviors was the biggest problem.21 The disruption manifested itself in three ways: victimization; caretaking; and sadness and loss. Siblings felt victimized by their ADHD brothers’ aggressive behavior, including verbal abuse, physical aggression, and manipulation. Parents also expected siblings to protect and care for their ADHD brothers due to the social and emotional immaturity that is associated with ADHD. Many siblings reported feeling sad, anxious and worried because of ADHD symptoms.A new, non-stimulant ADHD medication, Atomoxetine was shown to improve the perception of quality-of-life, as well as social and familial functioning and self-esteem. It is necessary to conduct further research in order to evaluate the quality of life that the child and family experience after multimodal input.
ADHD IN YOUNG PEOPLE
Inattention, impulsiveness and inner restlessness are still significant problems in adolescents with ADHD. Adolescents with ADHD have reported a distorted self-perception and disruption in the normal development.25 In addition, they may display excessively aggressive or antisocial behaviors, which can cause further problems. 3|). Edwards and colleagues conducted a study. The study examined 27 teenagers who had ADHD and oppositional-defiant disorder, which is characterized by defiant and provocative behavior, but not by more serious disobedient or aggressive actions that violate laws or rights of others. The teenagers who rated their own conflict with parents higher than the controls in the community. Parents of teens with ADHD also reported increased parent-teen conflicts when they rated their teenagers. A survey of 11-15 year-olds revealed that hyperkinesis was twice as common in those with the condition as it is among the general population.30 The risk of such events was increased further by the presence of concomitant ODD.29 However, it has been suggested that treatment may have a positive effect on driving skills.31 Data from Barkley RA;26 (A) Impact at school; (B) impact on health,social and psychiatric wellbeing. Data from Barkley, RA.26 (A) Impact on school; (B), impact on health, mental, and social wellbeing.Driving-related offenses in young adults with ADHD compared to controls. NS was not statistically significant.
Many adults with ADHD have difficulty in the workplace. They have to select specific jobs and they are often self-employed. Adults with ADHD have more difficulties relating to their employers and co-workers. Other problems include tardiness, absenteeism and excessive errors. Relationship problems and breakups at home are more frequent. Adults with persistent ADHD symptoms, who are not taking medication, have a higher risk of substance abuse.34 Due to the genetics of ADHD adults with ADHD have a greater chance of having children with ADHD. This can cause further difficulties, as the success or failure of parenting programs designed for parents of children who have ADHD is heavily influenced by parental ADHD.
Comorbid disorders can affect individuals with ADHD for the rest of their lives. With neurodevelopmental problems, such as dyslexia and developmental coordination disorder, being particularly common. Children with ADHD are often also affected by tic disorders, which are not related to stimulant medications. Around 60% of children with Tourette Syndrome also meet the criteria for ADHD. In at least 30% of cases, and some reports even up to 90% of them, conduct disorder and ODD are co-occurring with ADHD.36ADHD and comorbidity among Swedish school-age kids.37 RWD, Reading/Writing Disorder; DC, Developmental Coordination; ODD is oppositional defiant disorders.
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH TREATMENT
Scientific debate has long centered on the issue of growth deficits among children who receive stimulant treatment to treat ADHD. Some authors have reported conflicting results. They claim that stimulants can affect children’s growth, but only during active treatment. This does not impact final height.A common concern expressed about the use of stimulant medication to treat ADHD is that it may lead to addiction. By nature, young people with ADHD take impulsive risks. Untreated ADHD, especially when combined with conduct disorder, is associated with a 3- to 4-fold increased risk of substance abuse.
A population-based, historical cohort study followed 4880 individuals from 1987 to 1995 and compared the nine-year median medical cost per person: ADHD medical costs were US$4306, whereas non-ADHD medical costs were US$1944 (p0.01).50 These findings are likely to reflect increased injury following accidents and a rise in use of substance abuse services and other outpatient facilities. However, evidence from the USA indicates that they are higher compared with controls who have the same age. The study compared the median nine-year medical costs per person for ADHD and non-ADHD. Children with ADHD are more likely than other children to suffer injuries as pedestrians and bicyclists. A study of ADHD in substance abusers found that ADHD is significantly more prevalent among those with psychoactive substance use disorders.53 The relatives of ADHD patients also use health services at a higher rate. Direct and indirect medical costs for family members with ADHD were found to be twice as high compared to those of the control group. ADHD-related stress in the family has been associated with an increased risk for parental depression and alcohol-related disorders.55 – 57The role of ADHD treatment in reducing the risk of adverse outcomes is crucial. Many studies have shown that treatment for ADHD reduces the risk of substance use.
ADHD can affect all areas of a child’s life. If the assessment reveals significant impairment caused by ADHD, then treatment should be initiated.62,63 The current treatment is primarily focused on short-term relief for core symptoms during school hours. Current treatment regimens often do not affect important times in the day such as the early mornings, before school, and the evenings, up until bedtime. This can have a negative impact on child and family functioning, and fails to maximize self-esteem and mental health long-term development